Signs of Alzheimer’s or other dementia versus typical age-related changes

While there are noticeable changes that can be related to the onset of Alzheimer’s or other dementia, there are also typical age-related changes that can be misconstrued for dementia. Our 2020 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures report lays out some of the differences as well as how to move forward if you are concerned about behavioral changes that do not seem age-related. 

 It is important to understand which changes call for extra attention, and which are to be expected. Some causes of dementia-like symptoms include Lyme disease, sleep apnea, depression, side effects of medications, thyroid problems, delirium, vitamin deficiencies and excessive alcohol consumption. These problems may be reversed with treatment, unlike Alzheimer’s disease. 

Typical age-related changes in memory/behavior:

  • Sometimes forgetting names or appointments, but remember them later.
  • Making occasional errors when balancing a checkbook.
  • Occasionally needing help to use the settings on a microwave or record a television show. 
  • Getting confused about the day of the week but figuring it out later
  • Vision changes related to cataracts, glaucoma or age-related macular degeneration. 
  • Sometimes having trouble finding the right word.
  • Misplacing things from time to time and retracing steps to find them.
  • Making a bad decision once in a while.
  • Sometimes feeling weary of work, family and social obligations.
  • Developing very specific ways of doing things and becoming irritable when a routine is disrupted. 

These changes are common as a person ages and are not always cause for concern or extra attention. Some memory loss and changes in behavior are to be expected. There are some shifts in conduct, however, that may be more notable than the typical changes listed above. For an in-depth explanation of each sign of Alzheimer’s or other dementia, visit our full 2020 Facts and Figures report.

Signs of Alzheimer’s or other dementias include:

  • Memory loss that disrupts daily life.
  • Challenges in planning or solving problems.
  • Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home, at work or at leisure. 
  • Confusion with time or place.
  • Trouble understanding visual images and spatial relationships.
  • New problems with words in speaking or writing. 
  • Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps. 
  • Decreased or poor judgment.
  • Withdrawal from work or social activities.
  • Changes in mood and personality. 

Understanding the difference is important, that’s why here at the Alzheimer’s Association we are committed to always bringing you the facts. If you have questions or concerns, our helpline is available 24/7 at 800-272-3900.